Born in Boston, Massachusetts. Served with U.S. topographic engineers 1858 to 1860. Received M.D. from New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1863. Practiced medicine in Washington, D.C. after 1865. Served as professor of physiology at Columbia University after 1872.
Author of The Currency of the Confederate States of America in 1875. Thirty copies were printed. Collection sold at auction by Edouard Frossard December 22, 1885.
He died in Washington, D.C.
bio: ApCAB Supplement